Pragmatics: difficulty answering questions or requesting clarification.
Semantics: Figurative language, and dual definition problem, conjunction confusion (and, but, so...)
Syntax/ Morphology: Difficulty with negative and passive constructions (don't, isn't, do not), article confusion ( A, or, on)
Comprehension: WH question confusion, confusion of letter that look similar and words that sound similar.
Visual Daily Schedule
These schedules assist students in their daily routine. Individuals with ASD function well when there is a structured routine in place, having the schedule clearly posted in the classroom or on their desk will help them prepare for the day and know what is expected, with little to no surprises.
NO Symbol (visual)
This visual card can be placed in a variety of places, most useful would be on an individuals desk to help them answer a question. Another place this can be used in the classroom is in areas that students should not be accessing or touching. In some life skills classes there is a stove, and the NO symbol can be placed on there. These are a variety of symbols all meaning No, the teacher needs to choose one symbol and be consistent, it is important that the students know what the symbol means and respond to it appropriately.
Mini Schedules/ Specific Activity Schedules
These short activity schedules keep students focused on what needs to be completed at that specific time. One schedule that I constructed for a student who had difficulty with finishing morning procedures, it provided what needed to be completed each morning, and this schedule was placed on her desk so she was able to see it everyday.
It is important when to acknowledge something different is going to happen in the daily schedule, like a speaker, assembly or field trip. Below is an example I constructed in word to show what the schedule could look like with the change.
Sequential Step Directions
Sequential step directions help students complete a single task or goal. They can be placed at the sink in the classroom for hand washing, morning procedures, and at home for brushing teeth, washing dishes, doing laundry. This can help students gain independence to complete a task it also allows the teacher time to do something else, instead of after each task telling them what to do next, the students can work at their own pace and always know what they should be doing.
Activity Termination Symbols
When a student is completed a task it allows them to use a card, symbol or object to let the teacher know instead of yelling out or disrupting other students. Students can easily keep them on the side of the desk, front or on the top and can be changed when needed.
Owens, R. (2010). Language disorders: A functional approach to assessment and intervention. (5 ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
National Consortium on Deaf and Blindness
Teaching Learners with Multiple Needs